Before we start, let’s need to understand the background of the Third Carnatic War.
As we know, the French East India Company removed Governor Dupleix from October 1754 and handed over the responsibility of the company to M Godeheu.
Godeheu had a very short tenure in India. He returned from India within four months, only important work done during his tenure was Pondicherry peace agreement between the British and the French EIC.
After Godeheu, Leyrit came to India in the year 1755 to take over the charge of the French company. Leyrit did not have administrative and diplomatic capabilities and did not stand a chance before British East India Company.
Seven Years War in Europe
In the year 1756, the Seven Years’ War had started in Europe, again France and Britain were face to face, naturally the effect of this war was to be seen in India.
On 23 March 1757, the British attacked Chandernagar factory and took it under their possession, with this the third battle started. Chandernagar was a part of Bengal province. According to some historians, the first director of the French East India Company bought the land of Chandernagar factory in the year 1688 by giving 40,000 coins to the Mughal Subedar.
A lot of work was done here during the time of Dupleix, thus Chandernagar became the main trading zone of the French East India Company, but the British East India Company destroyed this place and took it under its control.
Arrival of new French Governor in India
After the attack, the French government understood that Leyrit was failing to handle the situation, so in 1758, the French East India Company removed Leyrit and appointed Lally as the new French governor. He was a capable and daring governor.
As Lally arrived India, he first attacked and captured the British Fort St. David located in Cuddalore. Lally’s next goal was to win Fort St. George which was located in Madras.
Here, It is necessary to understand that in any attack/ war, apart from the life and property, there is a financial loss on a large scale and this loss happens to both the sides. So, lets compare the financial situation of both the companies.
The British East India Company was financially stronger than the French Company because after the Plassey War of 1757, British was benefiting a lot from Bengal and Carnatic region and due to heavy revenue collection. While the financial condition of the French East India Company was critical, Lally took the risk and laid siege in Madras.
To save Madras, the British Company sent several troops from St. William of Calcutta. Lally was not ready to face it, as a result Lally had to take off the siege of Madras.
Battle of Wandiwash
The British East India Company wanted to teach Lally a lesson so that the French Company could not rise again.
On 22nd January 1760, British EIC and French EIC came face to face at Wandiwash. This battle is known as Battle of Wandiwash. Wandiwash means venerable, And it is located in Carnatic and is about 110 km away from Madras.
The leadership of the British East India Company was in the hands of Sir Eyre Coote in this war, whereas, on the other side Lally was leading French East India Company.
The French company was badly defeated in this war. After this the British East India Company took control of the important trading places of the French Company Like Pondicherry, Mahe, Karaikal. Lally was taken as a prisoner.
The French Company was no longer worthy enough to stand again, the French East India Company was completely destroyed from India.
Battle of Wandiwash establish British EIC as the paramount European power in the India.
End of Seven year war in Europe
The Seven Years War had ended in Europe in the year 1763 and a peace agreement was signed between European countries in Paris, which is known as the Treaty of Paris.
According to this agreement, the Third Carnatic War in India also ended and it was decided that whoever grabbed each other’s territories outside Europe should be returned.
Under this agreement Chandernagar, Mahe, Pondicherry and Karaikal were returned to the French Company. At the same time, the French company was instructed that from now on they would not fortify any fort and neither they could keep their troops there.
The British East India Company allowed the French East India Company to trade peacefully. Thus, after the Third War of Carnatic, the British East India Company dominated India in a major way, it is the beginning of India becoming a colonial country of Britain.
After Third Carnatic War, the influence of the French East India Company was almost ended in India and the British East India Company was able to firmly establish its foothold in India.