The First Carnatic War fought between the British EIC and French EIC. Actually by 1670 many EIC had arrived in India out of them four were most important. They are Portuguese EIC, Dutch EIC, British EIC, French EIC.
Struggle between the European EIC for Supremacy
These four were trading company but often there were dispute between them. In the race to came First in battle of trade, Protuguese and Dutch distanced himself from it.
In fact, in the year 1661, King Charles II of England married the daughter of King John IV of Portugal, due to this Portuguese got out of the trade war.
The King of Travancore was behind the Dutch East India Company, whose name was Martanda Verma. He badly defeated the Dutch East India Company in the Battle of Colachel in 1741, that the Dutch East India Company had to surrender.
Since then, the Dutch East India Company shifted its business from India to Indonesia and Malaysia. Thus the Dutch East India Company was out of the game after the Colachel war.
Conflict between French EIC and British EIC
Now only two companies were fight for supremacy in India and these two companies were British East India Company and French East India Company.
The French East India Company made its settlements in Pondicherry and Karaikal. While the British East India Company had built two forts, Fort St. George in Madras and Fort St. David in Cuddalore . That is the main settlements of both the companies were in Carnatic.
Carnatic is actually the region between Bay of Bengal and Eastern Ghats. Anwaruddin became the Nawab of Carnatic in 1744.
From 1740, the War of Succession was started in Europe. This war is going on to decided that who will sit in the throne of Austria? In the year 1744, Britain also took entry. In this way Britain and France had come face to face.
The tension between Britain and France also affected India. In the year 1745, the British East India Company attacked the French Ship standing in the Indian Ocean, with which the “First Carnatic War” was started.
Now it was the turn of the French Governor Dupleix to answer. Dupleix wanted to answer the brick of British with stone.
He invited the French governor of Mauritius and he too immediately reached the Bay of Bengal with his naval forces and then destroyed the British ship. And not only this, in September 1746, the East India Company took Madras under its control and kept many Britishers here as Prisoners of War.
War Between Nawab of Carnatic and French EIC
Britishers sought help from Anwaruddin, the Nawab of Carnatic.
Anwaruddin told the French Governor Dupleix that no fight should be fought in his territory and maintain peace. But Dupleix on the contrary took Anwaruddin into his trap, he promised Anwaruddin that after taking control of Madras, he would hand it over to him.
Anwaruddin sat quiet for a few days but Dupleix did not keep his promise, so in October 1746, Anwaruddin sent a huge army to capture Madras.
Then on the banks of the Adhyar river, a small French contingent consisting of only 1000 soldiers crushed Anwaruddin 10,000 soldiers.
This battle is also called as Battle of Adyar or Battle of Santhome because the name of that place was Santhome.
The Battle of Adhyar opened Anwaruddin eyes, he understood the weakness of Indian soldiers in comparision to the efficient trained soldiers of European power.
Treaty – ‘Aix la Chapelle’
The Austrian War of Succession was ended in 1748. Britain and France signed a treaty named as Treaty of “Aix la Chapelle”. After this treaty there was a ceasefire between the two.
A deal was also done under this treaty, the deal was that the Louisburg which Britain had captured would have to be returned to France. Actually Louisburg is part of Canada, which was with France at that time, which was captured by Britain, so Britain had to give it back to France according to this treaty.
In return, the French East India Company had to return Madras to the British East India Company. In this way the British East India Company got back Madras.
Thus the First Carnatic War, which started with the Austrian War of Succession, ended with the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle.