The Second Carnatic war was the second battle in the series of Carnatic war. This battle was fought between French EIC and British EIC. Here we are going to understand the background of this war.
Administration during Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
The Mughal Empire was at its heyday during the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
For the administration of such a large country, the Mughals were appointment their governors in many provinces. The areas around these provinces were called suba, which were administered by deputy governors who worked under the governor.
Decline of Mughal Empire
Aurangzeb died in 1707 and due to the weakening of the subsequent Mughal ruler, Mughal politics began to falter.
As a result of decline Mughal Empire some of the governor of Mughal Provinces declare themselves as the Nizam of Autonomous State, such state are called as Successor States.
One such Successor state was Hyderabad, the governor there declared himself Nizam in 1724, whose name was Asaf Jah I and gave himself the title of Nizamun Mulk.
There were many provinces around Hyderabad which were under Mughal who reported to Asaf Jah I. One such subah was Carnatic. At that time Mohammed Sayyid was the governor there and Asaf Jah I made him the Nawab of Carnatic and gave him the title Saadatullah Khan I.
Thus a new dynasty, Asaf Jah Dynasty started in Hyderabad while Nawayath Dynasty in Carnatic.
Ending of Nawayath Dynasty
Saadatullah Khan I did not have children, so he adopted Dost Ali, the son of his brother Ghulam Ali Khan. When he grew up, the throne of Carnatic was handed over to Dost Ali in 1734.
Dost Ali’s son was Safdar Ali Khan and Dost Ali’s son-in-law was Chanda Saheb but Safdar Ali Khan was assassinated in 1743.
Safdar Ali Khan’s son was very young and Chanda Saheb was taken into custody by Chhatrapati Sahu, now Chanda Saheb could not be made Nawab so there was a dilemma.
At such a time Asaf Jah intervened and said that make Safdar Ali Khan’s younger child Saadatullah Khan II the Nawab. Awaruddin was made his representative until he grew up, but Saadatullah Khan II was assassinated in 1744, thus Nawayath dynasty of Carnatic was ended.
Plan of Chanda Saheb against Anwaruddin
After this Anwaruddin was declared as the Nawab of Carnataic by Asaf Jah I.
As we know, In 1746 during First Carnatic war French army of Dupleix had badly driven away the Anwaruddin army, this war is also called Adhyar War or St. Thom War. This war had opened the eyes of Anwaruddin and he understood that he can’t fight alone against them.
Meanwhile, Chanda Saheb was released from the prison of the Marathas. When he got to know that Anwaruddin is the Nawab of Carnatic,his mind blown away. According to him he was the only heir of Nawayath dynasty and wanted to be the Nawab himself by removing Anwaruddin.
Due to this Chanda Saheb joined hands with French EIC (emeny of Anwaruddin).
Controversy over the Throne in Hyderabad
Asaf Jah I died in June 1748, now two claimants to the throne of Hyderabad were Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung. Nasir Jung was the son of Asaf Jah I and Muzaffar Jung was his grandson.
By law, Nasir Jung was the successor of Hyderabad, but the problem was that Nasir Jung had tried to kill Asaf Jah I, so Asaf Jah I beaten him and drove him away. That’s why he made his successor Muzaffar Jung, which was not acceptable to Nasir Jung.
Muzaffar Jung and Nasir Jung were face to face, while Anwaruddin supported Nasir Jung, so on one side there was Nasir Jung and Anwaruddin and on the other side Muzaffar Jung alone.
Support of Chanda Saheb to Muzaffar Jung
Taking stock of the situation, Chanda Saheb supported Muzaffar Jung and as we know that Chanda Saheb had already taken Duplex with him, that meant Muzaffar Jung, Chanda saheb, French East India Company on one side .
Anwaruddin took British East India Company in his camp, so on other side Nasir Jung, Anwaruddin and British EIC was there.
Thus the background for the Second Carnatic War was prepared.